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Present perfect simple and time adverbs

 
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    Present perfect simple and time adverbs

    The present perfect simple has numerous functions in the English language. We can use it to link the past to the present, to show the present result of an activity in an unspecified time in the past and also we can describe life experiences with the present perfect simple. When a user of English wants to add detail to their present perfect simple sentences there a number of adverbs that can be added in the sentences to give more information

     

     

    Affirmative sentences

     

    Sentence

    Form

    Explanation

    I've just done the shopping

    Subject + have/has + just + past participle + object

    Here the present perfect is used to describe the present result of past activities. Just is used to describe the fact that the activity has very recently been completed

    We've already seen this film

     

    Subject + have/has + already + past participle + object

    Already used with the present perfect describes the fact that the activity is not a new experience. In this example, a film has been seen before by the speaker

    You've visited this country before

     

    Subject + have/has + past participle + object + before

    Here we have the present perfect simple describing an experience. The adverb before clearly indicates that the experience is not a new one.

    I've still got your cat

    Subject + have/has + still + past participle + object

    Present perfect simple with still describes an activity that started in the past and is continuing up to the present. The speaker in this example is saying that they have had their friend's cat and have it now as well.

    I have always loved chocolate

    Subject + have/has + still + past participle + object

    When we use always with the present perfect simple we are describing an experience/feeling about something that has been true for the lifetime of the speaker- They have loved chocolate forever

    I've lived here since January 2000

    Subject + have/has + past participle + since + time phrase

    When we use since with the present perfect simple we describe in detail an experience/activity in terms of a specific moment in time. In this case, the speaker lived somewhere in 2000 and they are living there today.

    I've been here for 2 hours

    Subject + have/has + past participle + for + time phrase

    When we use for with the present perfect simple we describe in detail an experience over a period of time. In this case, the speaker has been somewhere for 2 hours

     

     

    Negative sentences

     

    Sentence

    Form

    Explanation

    I've  never  been to that doctor

    Subject + have/has + never + past participle + object

    When never is used with the present perfect the sentence created has a negative emphasis. A speaker describes an experience that has not happened ever

    He still  hasn't done his homework

    Subject + still + have/has + not + past participle + object

    When a speaker of English uses still in a negative present perfect sentence, we describe an activity or experience that we are waiting for because it still hasn't happened

    I haven't  always  done my hair this way

    Subject + have/has + not +  always + past participle + object

    If we use always with negative present perfect simple sentences, we are probably describing something that has recently changed. In this example, the speaker's hair is now different because previously, the didn't have their hair this way

    I haven't seen you here before

    Subject + have/has + not + past participle + object + before

    The use of before in negative present perfect sentences clearly shows us that the experience or activity being described is happening for the first time because in the past, it did not.

    I haven't finished work yet

    Subject + have/has + not + past participle + object + yet

    A very common adverb used with the present perfect negative sentences is yet. If we use yet with negative present perfect sentences we are describing an activity that has not happened but will hopefully soon.

    He just hasn't understood the question

    Subject + just + have/has + not + past participle + object

    Just used in negative present perfect sentences is used to emphasize the activity not being completed.

     

     

    Question forms

     

    Sentence

    Form

    Explanation

    Have you been to the new shopping centre yet?

    Have/Has + subject + past participle + object + yet +?

     
     

    When we use yet in a question, we are asking someone about an activity that we expected to be completed but we are waiting for it to be done

    What have you already  eaten?

     

    Question word + have/has + subject + already + past participle + ?

    With already, the question formed is asking about an activity that has been done before or is repeated

    Have you just  got back?

     

    Have/ Has + subject + just + past participle + object + ?

     Just in a question asks about an activity that has (or has not) been completed very recently

    What has he always  enjoyed?

     

    Question word + have/has + subject + always + past participle + ?

    Always in a present perfect question is asking about someone's entire life

    Have you still  got any mushrooms?

    Have/ Has + subject + still + past participle + object + ?

     
     

    When we use still in present perfect questions, we are asking if something from the past has continued into the present

    Has she ever  been there before?

     

    Have/ Has + subject + never + past participle + object + before + ?

    When we ask a present perfect question with ever and before we are asking about the experiences someone has or has not had in the context of their entire life

     

     

     

     Warning!

    The word order of the adverbs is fixed so you must be careful when constructing sentences like these. If adverbs are placed incorrectly in a present perfect simple sentence the result is unnatural English

     

    Have you finished it yet NOT Have you finished yet it

     

    I still haven't found your camera NOT I haven't still found your camera

     

    She has just gone NOT She has gone just

     

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