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The man shot the bird with a gun.
The man shot the bird by a gun.

When you warn to show the means or the instrument with which the action is done, use with. By denotes the order of the action: The bird was shot by the man.

The following take by and not with: by hand, by post, by phone, by one's watch, by the hour, by the dozen, by the metre.

The teacher spoke for bad habits,
The teacher spoke about bad habits.

Don't use for in the sense of about. The chief use of for is to convey the idea of being in favour of. If we say that the teacher spoke for bad habits it's like saying that he/she spoke in favour of bad habits!

He's the tallest from all the boys.
He's the tallest of all the boys.
Also possible:
He's the tallest boy in the class.

Precede adjectives (or adverbs) in the superlative degree by the and follow them by of or in.

Mary was punished from her father.
Mary was punished by her father

Use by (not from) after the passive form to show the doer of the action.

There was a fight among two boys.
There was a fight between two boys.
Divide the apple between you three.
Divide the apple among you three.

Use between for two only. Use among for more than two.

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