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He took little exercise and wasn't very fit.
He took a little exercise and wasn't very fit.
She took a little exercise and felt much better.
She took little exercise and felt much better.

Little means not much and emphasises the smallness of the amount. It's distinguished from a little which means at least some.

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John visits her aunt every Sunday
John visits his aunt every Sunday,

In English, possessive adjectives (and pronouns) agree with the person who possesses, and not with the person or thing possessed. When the possessor is masculine, use his, and when the possessor is feminine, use her.

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Look at that dog across the street!
Look at this dog across the street!

This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!

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What's the latest news from the Palace?
What's the last news from the Palace?

Latest is the last up to the present. Last is the final one: Z is the last letter of the alphabet.

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Adam found one ring in the street.
Adam found a ring in the street

Don't use the numeral one instead of the indefinite article a or an. Use one only where the number is emphatic: He gave me one book instead of two.

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