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Although the question was easy, few boys were able to answer it.
Although the question was easy, a few boys were able to answer it.
Although the question was difficult, a few boys were able to answer it.
Although the question was difficult, few boys were able to answer it.

Few means not many and emphasises the smallness of the number, it is distinguished from a few, which means at least some.

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My brother hasn't much books.
My brother hasn't many books
Is there many dust in the room?
Is there much dust in the room?

Use many with plural nouns: many books or many boys. Use much with uncountable nouns: much water or much bread.

In affirmative sentences many and much are generally replaced by a lot (of), a great deal (of), plenty (of), a good deal (of), a good many (of), a great number (of), a large quantity (of), etc

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He's been sick for over a year.
He's been ill for over a year.

To be ill means to be in bad health. To be sick means to vomit. We sometimes use sick idiomatically to mean feeling ill. The smell made me sick.

We can also use sick before certain nouns: The sick room, a sick note, sick leave. We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people: Angela worked with the sick on the streets of Birmingham.

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I've read an interested story.
I've read an interesting story
Are you interesting in your work?
Are you interested in your work?

Interesting refers to the thing which arouses interest, while interested refers to the person who takes an interest in the thing.

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Louis has got some milk.
Louis has got any milk.
There aren't any books on the shelf.
There aren't some books on the shelf.

We usually use some for affirmative phrases: She's got some chicken, and any in negative and interrogative phrases: Ian hasn't bought any food today. Have you bought any food? We sometimes use some in questions: Would you like some soup?

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