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I'm understanding the lesson now.
I understand the lesson now.

As a rule, verbs denoting a state rather than an act have no continuous forms, like understand, know, believe, like, love, belong, prefer, consist, mean, hear, see, etc.

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Did you went to school yesterday?
Did you go to school yesterday?
I did not went to school yesterday.
I did not go to school yesterday.

Use the present infinitive without to, not the past tense after the auxiliary did.

the answer to a question beginning with did is always in the past tense: Did you see the picture? -Yes, I saw the picture; or Yes, I did.

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The train had already left before I arrived.
The train already left before I arrived.

Use the past perfect when the time of one past action is more past than that of another. Put the action which was completed first in the past perfect and the second action in the past tense.

Don't use the present tense and the past perfect in the same sentence. It would be incorrect to say: My brother says that he had not gone to the cinema last night.

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You ought to have come yesterday.
You ought to come yesterday.
Also possible:
You should have come yesterday.

Don't use must and ought to as past tenses. To express a past duty (which wasn't done) use the perfect infinitive without to after ought to or should, or expressions such as had to, was obliged to.

In indirect speech use must and ought to as past tenses: He said he must do it.

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The clock has struck.
The clock struck.

If we are speaking of an action just finished, we must use the present perfect instead of the simple past tense. For example, immediately after the clock strikes, we shouldn't say The clock struck, but The clock has struck.

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