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The man shot the bird with a gun.
The man shot the bird by a gun.

When you warn to show the means or the instrument with which the action is done, use with. By denotes the order of the action: The bird was shot by the man.

The following take by and not with: by hand, by post, by phone, by one's watch, by the hour, by the dozen, by the metre.

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Gemma spent all the day in her room.
Gemma spent all the day into her room.
Richard came into the room and sat down.
Richard came in the room and sat down.

In denotes position inside something, while into denotes motion or direction towards the inside of something.

Always write the preposition into as one word.

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My uncle will arrive on Saturday.
My uncle will arrive at Saturday.
I usually get up at seven o'clock.
I usually get up on seven o'clock.
She goes for a walk in the afternoon.
She goes for a walk at the afternoon.

Use on with the days of the week or month: on Friday, on March 25, on New Year's Day. Use at with the exact time: at four o'clock, at dawn, at noon, at sunset, at midnight. Use in with a period of time: in April, in winter, in 1945, in the morning. Also at night and by day.

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Liam has a flat at Paris.
Liam has a flat in Paris.
My mother is staying in 66 Argyle Street.
My mother is staying at 66 Argyle Street.

We use in to describe the physical location of something as part of a larger thing or place. We use at when we're talking about an address, a public place or building (a bus stop, the Post Office, the library etc.) and cases in which the location is irrelevant but what we do there is what matters (school, the dentist, dance class etc.) 

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I may be able to go in a week.
I may be able to go after a week.
Also possible:
I may be able to go in a week's time.

When speaking of a period of time in the future, use in, and not after. Here in means after the end of.

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