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The poor man isn't able to pay
The poor man doesn't able to pay.

Able is an adjective, and we can't use it as a verb.

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The other boys aren't here.
The others boys aren't here.

Others isn't an adjective but a pronoun. The adjective is other (without the s) We can say: The others aren't here, omitting the noun boys.

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Anne said to me, 'You're fool.'
Anne said to me, 'You're a fool.'
Anne said to me, 'You're a foolish.'
Anne said to me, 'You're foolish.'

Fool is a noun, and requires the article when we use it with the verb to be. Foolish is an adjective, and can't be used with the article after the verb to be.

A fool or a foolish person doesn't mean an insane person, but one who acts thoughtlessly. We tend to use silly or stupid instead of foolish in modern usage.

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Mike had plenty work to do.
Mike had plenty of work to do.

Plenty isn't an adjective, but a noun meaning a large number or amount. The adjective is plentiful: Oranges are cheap now because they are plentiful

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Be careful not to lose your money.
Be careful not to loose your money.

Lose (with one o) is the common verb meaning not to be able to find. Loose (with double o) is an adjective meaning unfastened, free: The horse was loose in the field.

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