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Use the present perfect (and not the simple present) for an action begun in the past and continuing into the present. I've been at this school two years means I'm still here.
Express an improbable condition by the past tense and use the conditional in the main clause. This use of the past tense doesn't indicate a time but a degree of probability.
If the verb in the main clause is in the future, the verb in the time clause must be in the present tense
Use the simple present (and not the present continuous) to express a present habitual action.
Use the present continuous to express a habitual action with the word always or with a verb denoting a continuous state: He is always talking in class; He is living in London.
Don't use must and ought to as past tenses. To express a past duty (which wasn't done) use the perfect infinitive without to after ought to or should, or expressions such as had to, was obliged to.
In indirect speech use must and ought to as past tenses: He said he must do it.