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These flowers grow up very quickly.
These flowers grow very quickly.
When I grow I'll be a doctor.
When I grow up I'll be a doctor.

To grow means to become bigger, to grow up means to become an adult.

Other meanings of grow. to occur naturally in the ground: Rice grows in Egypt; to cause to grow: We grow flowers in our garden; to allow to grow: He grew a beard; to become: The nights grow cold in winter.

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I'm going to lay down for an hour.
I'm going to lie down for an hour.
Please lie the exam papers on the desk.
Please lay out the exam papers on the desk.

Lie (= to rest) is an intransitive verb and never has an object. Lay (= to put) is a transitive verb and always requires an object. Their principal parts are lie, lay, lain, and lay, laid, laid.

Lie, lied, lied is to tell an untruth: He has lied to me. Lay, laid, laid also means to produce eggs: The hen has laid an egg. (Idiom: Lay the table is to prepare the table for a meal.)

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They substituted gold with paper money
They replaced gold with paper money.

We replace one thing with another, but we substitute one thing for another. The two phrases mean the reverse of each other: You replace gold with paper money. You substitute paper money for gold.

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I want to lend a book from you
I want to borrow a book from you
Will you please borrow me a book?
Will you please lend me a book?

To borrow is to get something from someone, and to lend is to give something to someone.

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I asked him to do me a favour.
I pleased him to do me a favour.
Also possible:
I thanked him for his lovely present.

To please means to give pleasure to: I worked hard to please my teacher.

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