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Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the last.
Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the latter.

The latter means the second of two people or things which have been mentioned. The last refers to a series of more than two.

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Look at that dog across the street!
Look at this dog across the street!

This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!

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You should keep your hands clear.
You should keep your hands clean.

Clean is the opposite of dirty. Clear means transparent or unclouded: clear water, a clear sky.

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John visits his aunt every Sunday,
John visits her aunt every Sunday

In English, possessive adjectives (and pronouns) agree with the person who possesses, and not with the person or thing possessed. When the possessor is masculine, use his, and when the possessor is feminine, use her.

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She got to school latter than I did.
She got to school later than I did.

Later refers to time. Latter refers to order and means the second of two things just mentioned: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities. The latter has a population of over a million. The opposite of latter is former.

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