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Last night I went to bed late.
Last night I went to bed lately.

The opposite of early is late, not lately. Lately means in recent times: I haven't been there lately.

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Zoe scarcely comes to see me now.
Zoe rarely comes to see me now

Scarcely isn't synonymous with rarely. Rarely means not often, scarcely means not quite: I had scarcely finished when he came.

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The messenger will arrive just now.
The messenger will arrive presently.

If we are speaking of a near and immediate future time, we must use presently, immediately, in a minute, or soon. Just now refers to present past time, and not to future time: He's not at home just now (= at this moment). He left just now (= a little time ago).

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I hear that he's not so rich.
I hear that he's not very rich.

We can't use not so in the sense of not very. The expression He's not so rich implies a comparison: He's not so rich as you are.

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She rubbed her eyes hardly.
She rubbed her eyes hard.

Hard means severely. Hardly means not quite or scarcely: The baby can hardly walk.

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