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Steven failed in maths last year.
Steven failed from maths last year.
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Fiona always says the truth.
Fiona always tells the truth.
Also possible:
Fiona always speaks the truth

Also to tell a lie (not to say a lie): He told me a lie.

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America was invented by Columbus.
America was discovered by Columbus.
Edison discovered the gramophone.
Edison invented the gramophone.

To discover is to find that which existed before but was unknown, and to invent is to create that which didn't exist before.

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I saw the Parthenon of Athens.
I have seen the Parthenon of Athens.

If we are speaking of the result of a past action rather than of the action we must use the present perfect tense. When somebody says, I have seen Panthenon, he or she is not thinking so much of the past act of seeing it, as the present result of that past action.

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I'd finished the book yesterday.
I finished the book yesterday.

Don't use the past perfect unless there is another verb in the past tense in the same sentence.

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