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I enjoyed myself during the holidays.
I enjoyed during the holidays.
Also possible:
I enjoyed my holidays.

Don't follow the verb enjoy by a preposition. It must always have an ob|ect, which may either be a reflexive pronoun or a noun.

We say: I had a good time, as this is an idiomatic expression, but we can't say I enjoyed my time. We must specify. I enjoyed my time in Greece.

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I saw the Parthenon of Athens.
I have seen the Parthenon of Athens.

If we are speaking of the result of a past action rather than of the action we must use the present perfect tense. When somebody says, I have seen Panthenon, he or she is not thinking so much of the past act of seeing it, as the present result of that past action.

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They substituted gold with paper money
They replaced gold with paper money.

We replace one thing with another, but we substitute one thing for another. The two phrases mean the reverse of each other: You replace gold with paper money. You substitute paper money for gold.

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She earns her living by hard work.
She wins her living by hard work.

To earn means to receive in return for work, to win is to obtain as a result of fighting, competition, gambling, etc.

The verb to gain may be used with either meaning: to gain one's living or to gain a victory, a prize, etc.

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Harold was surprised at the loud bang
Harold was surprised for the loud bang.
Also possible:
Harold was surprised by the loud bang

Also astonished at/by, amazed at/by, alarmed at/by, puzzled at/by, shocked at/by.

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