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We use ago in counting from the time of speaking to a point in the past; half an hour ago, three days ago, four months ago, five years ago, a long time ago. We use before in counting from a distant to a nearer point in the past. Napoleon died in 1821, he had lost the battle of Waterloo six years before.
When we use ago, the verb is always in the simple past tense: He came five minutes ago.
Use know when learning is finished: She knows how to swim. Similarly, avoid using know to mean find out or realise.
(A dozen = 12): I'd like to buy a dozen eggs. When dozen isn't preceded by a numeral (like three) or by a we use the plural form: There were dozens of eggs
We usually use some for affirmative phrases: She's got some chicken, and any in negative and interrogative phrases: Ian hasn't bought any food today. Have you bought any food? We sometimes use some in questions: Would you like some soup?