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They replaced gold with paper money.
They substituted gold with paper money

We replace one thing with another, but we substitute one thing for another. The two phrases mean the reverse of each other: You replace gold with paper money. You substitute paper money for gold.

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I asked him to do me a favour.
I pleased him to do me a favour.
Also possible:
I thanked him for his lovely present.

To please means to give pleasure to: I worked hard to please my teacher.

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I went to the baker's to buy bread.
I went to the baker's to take bread.

Never use take in the sense of buy.

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I am persuaded of Robin's innocence.
I am convinced of Robin's innocence.

Persuade and convince have very similar meanings and are mostly interchangeable in modern English: Delia persuaded me to take the exam = Delia convinced me to take the exam. Except in the case of to be convinced of something meaning to believe something.

Care must be taken not to confuse persuade with pursued, the past tense of pursue (= to follow).

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The astronauts are bringing plants to the moon.
The astronauts are taking plants to the moon.

Using bring or take depends on where the speaker or doer is. We use bring for things coming to where we are and take for things going somewhere else: Take these cakes to your grandmother and bring (back) some flowers from her garden.

To fetch means to go somewhere else and come back with something: Please fetch me a glass of water (= go and come back with a glass of water)

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