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I've read an interesting story
I've read an interested story.
Are you interested in your work?
Are you interesting in your work?

Interesting refers to the thing which arouses interest, while interested refers to the person who takes an interest in the thing.

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He's been sick for over a year.
He's been ill for over a year.

To be ill means to be in bad health. To be sick means to vomit. We sometimes use sick idiomatically to mean feeling ill. The smell made me sick.

We can also use sick before certain nouns: The sick room, a sick note, sick leave. We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people: Angela worked with the sick on the streets of Birmingham.

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Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the latter.
Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the last.

The latter means the second of two people or things which have been mentioned. The last refers to a series of more than two.

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John visits her aunt every Sunday
John visits his aunt every Sunday,

In English, possessive adjectives (and pronouns) agree with the person who possesses, and not with the person or thing possessed. When the possessor is masculine, use his, and when the possessor is feminine, use her.

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This girl is older than that one.
This girl is elder than that one
My elder brother is called John.
My older brother is called John.

Older and oldest are applied to both people and things, while elder and eldest are applied to people only, and most frequently to related people.

Elder can't be followed by than: Jane is older (not elder) than her sister.

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