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Express an improbable condition by the past tense and use the conditional in the main clause. This use of the past tense doesn't indicate a time but a degree of probability.
Don't use must and ought to as past tenses. To express a past duty (which wasn't done) use the perfect infinitive without to after ought to or should, or expressions such as had to, was obliged to.
In indirect speech use must and ought to as past tenses: He said he must do it.
Use the past perfect when the time of one past action is more past than that of another. Put the action which was completed first in the past perfect and the second action in the past tense.
Don't use the present tense and the past perfect in the same sentence. It would be incorrect to say: My brother says that he had not gone to the cinema last night.
If you begin with a verb referring to past time, keep the verb forms in the past. The same rule applies to tenses throughout a composition.