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Our teacher is very angry today.
Our teacher is very nervous today.

Nervous means to be easily frightened or upset and can be a temporary or permanent condition. Angry describes someone's mood at a given moment.

She gave an apple to every of the children.
She gave an apple to each of the children.
Each child had an apple.
Every child had an apple.

Use each for one of two or more things, taken one by one. Never use every for two, but always for more than two things, taken as a group. Each is more individual and specific, but every is the more emphatic word.

Each and every are always singular: Each (or every) one of the twenty boys has a book.

He took little exercise and wasn't very fit.
He took a little exercise and wasn't very fit.
She took a little exercise and felt much better.
She took little exercise and felt much better.

Little means not much and emphasises the smallness of the amount. It's distinguished from a little which means at least some.

Look at this dog across the street!
Look at that dog across the street!

This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!

He's grown into a beautiful young man.
He's grown into a handsome young man.

We usually say that a man is handsome or good-looking, and that a woman is beautiful, lovely, good looking or pretty.

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