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To be ill means to be in bad health. To be sick means to vomit. We sometimes use sick idiomatically to mean feeling ill. The smell made me sick.
We can also use sick before certain nouns: The sick room, a sick note, sick leave. We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people: Angela worked with the sick on the streets of Birmingham.
Latest is the last up to the present. Last is the final one: Z is the last letter of the alphabet.
People are injured or hurt as a result of an accident or a fight, but people are wounded in wars and battles.
Older and oldest are applied to both people and things, while elder and eldest are applied to people only, and most frequently to related people.
Elder can't be followed by than: Jane is older (not elder) than her sister.
This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!