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This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!
Latest is the last up to the present. Last is the final one: Z is the last letter of the alphabet.
Older and oldest are applied to both people and things, while elder and eldest are applied to people only, and most frequently to related people.
Elder can't be followed by than: Jane is older (not elder) than her sister.
If reference is to age, say young or old. Small and big usually refer to size: He is big (or small) for his age.
Great refers to the importance of a person or thing: Napoleon was a great man, Homer's Iliad is a great book. Use great with words like distance, height, length, depth: There is a great distance between the earth and the moon. Informally, use great to mean something nice or good: We watched a great concert last night.