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She gave an apple to each of the children.
She gave an apple to every of the children.
Every child had an apple.
Each child had an apple.

Use each for one of two or more things, taken one by one. Never use every for two, but always for more than two things, taken as a group. Each is more individual and specific, but every is the more emphatic word.

Each and every are always singular: Each (or every) one of the twenty boys has a book.

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Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the latter.
Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the last.

The latter means the second of two people or things which have been mentioned. The last refers to a series of more than two.

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He's been ill for over a year.
He's been sick for over a year.

To be ill means to be in bad health. To be sick means to vomit. We sometimes use sick idiomatically to mean feeling ill. The smell made me sick.

We can also use sick before certain nouns: The sick room, a sick note, sick leave. We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people: Angela worked with the sick on the streets of Birmingham.

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He's grown into a handsome young man.
He's grown into a beautiful young man.

We usually say that a man is handsome or good-looking, and that a woman is beautiful, lovely, good looking or pretty.

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She got to school latter than I did.
She got to school later than I did.

Later refers to time. Latter refers to order and means the second of two things just mentioned: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities. The latter has a population of over a million. The opposite of latter is former.

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