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Louis has got any milk.
Louis has got some milk.
There aren't some books on the shelf.
There aren't any books on the shelf.

We usually use some for affirmative phrases: She's got some chicken, and any in negative and interrogative phrases: Ian hasn't bought any food today. Have you bought any food? We sometimes use some in questions: Would you like some soup?

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You should keep your hands clear.
You should keep your hands clean.

Clean is the opposite of dirty. Clear means transparent or unclouded: clear water, a clear sky.

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My brother hasn't much books.
My brother hasn't many books
Is there many dust in the room?
Is there much dust in the room?

Use many with plural nouns: many books or many boys. Use much with uncountable nouns: much water or much bread.

In affirmative sentences many and much are generally replaced by a lot (of), a great deal (of), plenty (of), a good deal (of), a good many (of), a great number (of), a large quantity (of), etc

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He's been sick for over a year.
He's been ill for over a year.

To be ill means to be in bad health. To be sick means to vomit. We sometimes use sick idiomatically to mean feeling ill. The smell made me sick.

We can also use sick before certain nouns: The sick room, a sick note, sick leave. We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people: Angela worked with the sick on the streets of Birmingham.

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Look at that dog across the street!
Look at this dog across the street!

This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!

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