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We generally use tall with people, and it's the opposite of short. Use high when referring to trees, buildings, or mountains, and it's the opposite of low.
Older and oldest are applied to both people and things, while elder and eldest are applied to people only, and most frequently to related people.
Elder can't be followed by than: Jane is older (not elder) than her sister.
In English, possessive adjectives (and pronouns) agree with the person who possesses, and not with the person or thing possessed. When the possessor is masculine, use his, and when the possessor is feminine, use her.
Little means not much and emphasises the smallness of the amount. It's distinguished from a little which means at least some.
This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!