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Later refers to time. Latter refers to order and means the second of two things just mentioned: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities. The latter has a population of over a million. The opposite of latter is former.
If reference is to age, say young or old. Small and big usually refer to size: He is big (or small) for his age.
Great refers to the importance of a person or thing: Napoleon was a great man, Homer's Iliad is a great book. Use great with words like distance, height, length, depth: There is a great distance between the earth and the moon. Informally, use great to mean something nice or good: We watched a great concert last night.
Older and oldest are applied to both people and things, while elder and eldest are applied to people only, and most frequently to related people.
Elder can't be followed by than: Jane is older (not elder) than her sister.
The latter means the second of two people or things which have been mentioned. The last refers to a series of more than two.
We usually use some for affirmative phrases: She's got some chicken, and any in negative and interrogative phrases: Ian hasn't bought any food today. Have you bought any food? We sometimes use some in questions: Would you like some soup?