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We usually use some for affirmative phrases: She's got some chicken, and any in negative and interrogative phrases: Ian hasn't bought any food today. Have you bought any food? We sometimes use some in questions: Would you like some soup?
The latter means the second of two people or things which have been mentioned. The last refers to a series of more than two.
Interesting refers to the thing which arouses interest, while interested refers to the person who takes an interest in the thing.
Later refers to time. Latter refers to order and means the second of two things just mentioned: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities. The latter has a population of over a million. The opposite of latter is former.
This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!