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Louis has got any milk.
Louis has got some milk.
There aren't some books on the shelf.
There aren't any books on the shelf.

We usually use some for affirmative phrases: She's got some chicken, and any in negative and interrogative phrases: Ian hasn't bought any food today. Have you bought any food? We sometimes use some in questions: Would you like some soup?

Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the latter.
Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the last.

The latter means the second of two people or things which have been mentioned. The last refers to a series of more than two.

I've read an interested story.
I've read an interesting story
Are you interesting in your work?
Are you interested in your work?

Interesting refers to the thing which arouses interest, while interested refers to the person who takes an interest in the thing.

She got to school later than I did.
She got to school latter than I did.

Later refers to time. Latter refers to order and means the second of two things just mentioned: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities. The latter has a population of over a million. The opposite of latter is former.

Look at this dog across the street!
Look at that dog across the street!

This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!

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