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What's the last news from the Palace?
What's the latest news from the Palace?

Latest is the last up to the present. Last is the final one: Z is the last letter of the alphabet.

Next
I'm two years younger than you.
I'm two years smaller than you
She's three years older than me.
She's three years bigger than me.

If reference is to age, say young or old. Small and big usually refer to size: He is big (or small) for his age.

Great refers to the importance of a person or thing: Napoleon was a great man, Homer's Iliad is a great book. Use great with words like distance, height, length, depth: There is a great distance between the earth and the moon. Informally, use great to mean something nice or good: We watched a great concert last night.

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Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the latter.
Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the last.

The latter means the second of two people or things which have been mentioned. The last refers to a series of more than two.

Next
He's been sick for over a year.
He's been ill for over a year.

To be ill means to be in bad health. To be sick means to vomit. We sometimes use sick idiomatically to mean feeling ill. The smell made me sick.

We can also use sick before certain nouns: The sick room, a sick note, sick leave. We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people: Angela worked with the sick on the streets of Birmingham.

Next
She gave an apple to every of the children.
She gave an apple to each of the children.
Each child had an apple.
Every child had an apple.

Use each for one of two or more things, taken one by one. Never use every for two, but always for more than two things, taken as a group. Each is more individual and specific, but every is the more emphatic word.

Each and every are always singular: Each (or every) one of the twenty boys has a book.

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