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She got to school later than I did.
She got to school latter than I did.

Later refers to time. Latter refers to order and means the second of two things just mentioned: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities. The latter has a population of over a million. The opposite of latter is former.

I was sorry to hear of her death.
I was angry to hear of her death.

Sorry is the opposite of glad. Angry means annoyed or enraged: He was angry when a boy hit him in the face.

Look at that dog across the street!
Look at this dog across the street!

This is used to indicate something physically close to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present. This is a lovely song! I'll help you do it this time. When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in time. If we're only talking about one thing we usually use that: What's that noise? That's a nice coat! Don't do that!

I've read an interested story.
I've read an interesting story
Are you interesting in your work?
Are you interested in your work?

Interesting refers to the thing which arouses interest, while interested refers to the person who takes an interest in the thing.

She gave an apple to each of the children.
She gave an apple to every of the children.
Every child had an apple.
Each child had an apple.

Use each for one of two or more things, taken one by one. Never use every for two, but always for more than two things, taken as a group. Each is more individual and specific, but every is the more emphatic word.

Each and every are always singular: Each (or every) one of the twenty boys has a book.

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