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Val rises very early in the morning.
Val raises very early in the morning.
She raised their salaries too often.
She rose their salaries too often.

Rise is an intransitive verb and means to go up, stand up, or get out of bed. It doesn't require an object. Raise is a transitive verb and means to lift up something Their principal parts are; rise, rose, risen, and raise, raised, raised.

Arise is often used for rise, but it is better to use arise only in the sense of begin: A quarrel (a discussion, an argument, a difficulty, etc.) may arise. This is formal but is still used.

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They substituted gold with paper money
They replaced gold with paper money.

We replace one thing with another, but we substitute one thing for another. The two phrases mean the reverse of each other: You replace gold with paper money. You substitute paper money for gold.

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No-one has been hung in Britain since 1964.
No-one has been hanged in Britain since 1964.
We hanged the picture on the wall.
We hung the picture on the wail.

When the reference is to killing a person or animal by hanging, we use the form hanged. In other cases, the form is hung. The principal parts of the two verbs are: hang, hanged, hanged; hang, hung, hung.

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Kevin is learning at Gordon College.
Kevin is studying at Gordon College.

The expression I learn at (Gordon College, etc.) is incorrect. Say I study at (Gordon College, etc.) or I am a student at (Gordon College, etc.).

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The astronauts are bringing plants to the moon.
The astronauts are taking plants to the moon.

Using bring or take depends on where the speaker or doer is. We use bring for things coming to where we are and take for things going somewhere else: Take these cakes to your grandmother and bring (back) some flowers from her garden.

To fetch means to go somewhere else and come back with something: Please fetch me a glass of water (= go and come back with a glass of water)

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