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A sandstorm covered our clothes with dust.
A sandstorm dusted our clothes.

To dust doesn't mean to cover with dust, but to remove dust from: After sweeping, she dusted the furniture.

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She earns her living by hard work.
She wins her living by hard work.

To earn means to receive in return for work, to win is to obtain as a result of fighting, competition, gambling, etc.

The verb to gain may be used with either meaning: to gain one's living or to gain a victory, a prize, etc.

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John fell down and broke his leg.
John fall down and broke his leg.

The past tense of this verb is fell, not fall. It's principal parts are: fall, fell, fallen.

Fell, felled, felled means to knock or cut down: The wood-cutter felled a large tree.

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Val raises very early in the morning.
Val rises very early in the morning.
She rose their salaries too often.
She raised their salaries too often.

Rise is an intransitive verb and means to go up, stand up, or get out of bed. It doesn't require an object. Raise is a transitive verb and means to lift up something Their principal parts are; rise, rose, risen, and raise, raised, raised.

Arise is often used for rise, but it is better to use arise only in the sense of begin: A quarrel (a discussion, an argument, a difficulty, etc.) may arise. This is formal but is still used.

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No-one has been hanged in Britain since 1964.
No-one has been hung in Britain since 1964.
We hung the picture on the wail.
We hanged the picture on the wall.

When the reference is to killing a person or animal by hanging, we use the form hanged. In other cases, the form is hung. The principal parts of the two verbs are: hang, hanged, hanged; hang, hung, hung.

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